Does Quantum Computing Use Binary Systems?

Does Quantum Computing Use Binary Systems?

Quantum computing is a relatively new technology still being developed. It’s no secret that this type of computing takes advantage of quantum mechanics to perform calculations much faster than traditional computers. However, one controversial question is whether or not quantum computing uses binary.

Quantum computing does use binary as the gate model with binary basis states. They use a quantum circuit, and the gates modify not the usual binary 1 or 0 bits but qubits. Notably, the output of every quantum computation is either a 0 or 1. 

This article will describe how quantum computers work and explain why the output is still a binary number. Read on for more insights into these and how to code in quantum computing.

How Quantum Computers Use Binary Systems

How Quantum Computers Use Binary
How Quantum Computers Use Binary

Quantum computing is a type of computing where information is processed using quantum bits instead of classical bits. This advancement helps speed up computation times and can be used for various tasks such as cryptographic encryption and molecular structures. So how do quantum computers use binary?

We must first examine the concept of Hilbert Spaces or Hilbert-space dimensions in quantum computing to answer this question.

In the simplest form, a Hilbert space is a mathematical structure that consists of a collection of vectors with a specific inner product. Essentially, it’s a two-dimensional plane where each vector has a length and direction.

In the context of quantum computing, this two-dimensional space is used to represent the possible states of a quantum bit.

Vectors in the Hilbert Space

Vectors in the Hilbert Space
TY – JOUR AU – Rådmark, Magnus Bloch sphere representing the Hilbert space of one qubit.

Now, here is where it gets interesting. Each of these vectors in the Hilbert space can be represented by a binary number. In other words, each vector can be represented by a combination of 0s and 1s.

So when a quantum computer performs a calculation, it doesn’t use binary numbers as inputs. Instead, the data is converted into a vector processed in the Hilbert space.

However, the output of every quantum computation is still a binary number. This fact is because a vector in the Hilbert space can represent the result of a quantum calculation, and this vector will always have a length and direction. In other words, it will always be a combination of 0s and 1s.

For more insights into quantum computing concepts, such as qubits, we recommend reading Quantum Computing for Everyone by Chris Bernhardt (available on The book is an excellent primer on the subject and provides a great introduction for those who want to learn more about quantum computing.

How Quantum Computers Work

Quantum Computing Decoded

Quantum computers use qubits, which are units of quantum information. A qubit can represent a 0, a 1, or any other number between 0 and 1. Unlike classical bits, qubits can be in multiple states simultaneously, allowing many calculations to be done simultaneously.

A qubit contains just one bit of information, like in a transistor or switchable circuit. From quantum mechanics, we understand to process quantum information; a quantum computer uses quantum entanglement and superposition

Superposition only comes into play after a qubit is combined with other qubits in a certain way. This process is where two or more qubits are linked together to share the same state. By linking qubits in this way, the quantum computer can perform many calculations simultaneously, known as quantum entanglement

Classical bits hold a single binary value such as a 0 or 1; the state of a qubit can be in a superposition of two quantum states, 0 and 1. If we measure a qubit, it produces a binary result, either 0 or 1, and takes the qubit out of superposition.

Why Quantum Computers Use Qubits as Inputs

A binary number can represent each vector in a Hilbert space. However, this representation is not very useful for quantum computing. Because qubits in a quantum computer are simultaneously in multiple states, each of these states needs to be represented by a different vector. If the qubits used binary numbers as inputs, there would be too many vectors to represent all possible states.

In addition, using binary numbers as inputs wouldn’t be inefficient because a quantum computer can only process one input at a time. By using qubits instead of binary numbers as inputs, the quantum computer operates on a more extensive set of inputs simultaneously.

Quantum Computing vs. Binary Computing: The Differences

Semiconductor qubits scale in two dimensions – a panel discussion.

It’s no secret that quantum computing and binary computing use different architectures. As I’ve highlighted, binary computers use a series of 0s and 1s to represent information, while quantum computers use a series of qubits, representing a 0, a 1, or both simultaneously. Yet, there are several other differences between these computers.

Here’s a rundown of 5 future notable differences between binary computing and quantum computing:

Quantum Computers Will Process More Data

Binary computers are good at processing a single input at a time, while quantum computers can process multiple inputs simultaneously.

As we mentioned, quantum computers use qubits instead of binary numbers as inputs. Since qubits contain more information than binary numbers, quantum computers can process more information simultaneously. This ability makes them faster and more efficient than binary computers.

Many quantum computers created today utilize qubits placed on two-dimensional chips to process information and are working towards fully quantum processors. Classical computers use a microprocessor and a hard drive to store and access information.

Quantum computers will require the probable usage of 100 million qubits to operate efficiently and without errors. The development of silicon quantum dots is progressing and shows promise for the classical computer semiconductor industry to produce the necessary chips for quantum computers.

Quantum Computers Will Store More Data

Quantum Computers Will Store More Data
The future of Quantum Processors

Classical and quantum computers both store data as binary code. Binary computers can store a limited amount of information, while quantum computers may be able to store unlimited information as the technology progresses. This reality is because binary computers use a limited number of bits to store data.

On the other hand, quantum computers use qubits, which can represent an infinite number of values. This ability may make quantum computers more efficient at data storage than binary computers.

Quantum Computers Will Be More Secure

Binary computers are vulnerable to hacking, while quantum computers will likely be harder to hack at full scale. Current computers and the internet have become vulnerable to classical computer hacking.

Theoretically, Qubits used by quantum computers and their algorithms will be harder to hack since they can represent an infinite number of values and are therefore harder to decipher. Qubits are also naturally unstable and easily collapse into a state of either 0 or 1. They are difficult to maintain and work with because of these challenges. 

Once realized, though, Quantum computing will fundamentally change cyber security. The current fear for the future is the ability of Quantum computer threats posed to public-key cryptographic systems.

Quantum Computers Will Be Faster

Quantum Computers Will Be Faster

Speed is another crucial distinction between binary and quantum computing. However, quantum computers have not reached the speeds they will be capable of someday. Quantum computers have fantastic potential to far outperform any classical computer with the promise of working on significant problems that would take years, decades, or centuries for a classical computer to process.

In general, quantum computers perform calculations at speeds far beyond traditional computers. This speed advantage is because quantum computers can exploit the properties of quantum mechanics to execute several operations simultaneously.

On the other hand, traditional computers are limited to performing one operation at a time. Whereas quantum computers can solve problems in a fraction of the time it would take a conventional computer.

Quantum Computers Will Solve More Complex Problems

Quantum computers aren’t limited to only solving mathematical problems. They have also simulated complex physical systems, such as molecules and materials. This ability could lead to advances in areas such as medicine and engineering.

As quantum computing develops, its speed advantage will likely increase, making it better equipped to solve more complex problems. There are difficult problems known as “PH,” which stands for “polynomial hierarchy,” that only quantum computers will eventually be able to conquer.

Does Quantum Computing Have a Future?

Does Quantum Computing Have a Future?
Google’s Quantum lab technicians working on their Quantum Computer.

Quantum computing has a promising future. While the laws of classical physics limit classical computers, quantum computers exploit quantum physics to perform otherwise impossible calculations. This potential will allow them to solve problems faster than classical computers.

Here’s a rundown of 4 areas quantum computing could potentially revolutionize:

Data Analysis

Today, businesses are collecting more data than ever before. However, traditional computers aren’t efficient at analyzing large data sets.

Quantum computers could change Data Analysis by helping businesses efficiently analyze and make sense of all that data. This ability would lead to better insights and faster decision-making.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning
AI Machine Learning and Quantum Computers utilizing Qubits. 5 qubits with superposition of 32 states.

Machine learning is a field of artificial intelligence that teaches computers to learn from data. Currently, machine learning algorithms are run on traditional computers.

However, quantum computers have the potential to accelerate machine learning and improve the accuracy of their algorithm. This improvement would lead to more intelligent machines that can learn and adapt faster than ever.

In addition, quantum machine learning algorithms could enable more powerful and efficient artificial intelligence (AI) applications.


Cryptography is the practice of secure communication in the presence of third parties. It’s used in various applications, such as email, file sharing, and online banking.

Currently, most cryptography algorithms are run on classical computers. However, quantum computers could break many of these algorithms because they can solve some problems much faster than traditional computers. This possibility could lead to a loss of security for many applications that rely on cryptography.

Although, the upside is that by exploiting the weaknesses of current cryptography algorithms, quantum computers could lead to the development of more secure ones.



Traditional computers aren’t efficient at simulating complex physical systems, such as molecules and materials.

Quantum computers could help change that by allowing more accurate and faster simulations. This improvement would lead to advances in fields such as medicine and engineering.

In addition, scientists could use quantum computers to simulate the behavior of quantum systems, which they could use to develop new technologies in quantum information processing and communication.

In Conclusion

So, does quantum computing use binary? The answer is yes and no and in multiple areas, but many ways are highly different from classical computers. 

Quantum computing uses binary as the gate model with binary basis states and stores data as binary code. Quantum computers use binary to represent output, but they can also perform operations on more than one quantum bit at a time.

As a result, quantum computers solve problems faster than traditional computers. Also, while the laws of classical physics limit classical computers, quantum computers exploit quantum physics to perform otherwise impossible calculations. Because of that, these computers can solve problems beyond the reach of classical computers.


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John Mortensen

As a kid I wanted to be an astronaut, geologist, or scientist. I became a project manager which is involved with many of those things. I am a project manager and tech writer who researches the latest alternative and green technologies. We write helpful articles about green electronics and green technology products. AI, extreme weather, electric vehicles, are all in our future and we want to know the best way to deal with the effects of these on the power grid and emergency preparedness.

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